From the New York Times:
"Looking at records from the 19th, 20th and 21st centuries, they have found evidence that shorter men are 20 to 30 percent more likely to end up in prison than their taller counterparts, and that obesity and physical attractiveness are linked to crime."
The article is interesting throughout, so read the whole thing.
It’s unclear to what extent the effects are purely relative — for example, there will always be shorter people in any population, so will those people be more prone to criminality even if they are tall or healthy in the absolute? Or perhaps it matters whether your traits are valued in the labor market, and there is some evidence for that:
"In [the 19th century] increased body weight was associated with a lower risk of crime. In the 21st century, though, in which service jobs are much more common, Mr. Price found that being overweight was linked to a higher risk of crime."
But you can bet that body weight was a lot lower back in the 19th century, and a higher body weight may have indicated vitality, not disability. Being underweight may have indicated lower health.
The bottom line: Health has real implications for our society beyond just health care costs.